Posts Tagged ‘XOAUTH2’

OAuth 2.0 with Gmail over IMAP for installed applications

Monday, March 13th, 2017

OAuth is an open protocol to allow secure API authorization in a simple and standard method from desktop and web applications.

This article describes using OAuth 2.0 to access Gmail IMAP and SMTP servers using .NET IMAP component in installed applications scenario. You can also use OAuth 2.0 for web applications.

Google.Apis

Use Nuget to download “Google.Apis.Auth” package.

Import namespaces:

// c#

using Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2;
using Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2.Flows;
using Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2.Requests;
using Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2.Responses;

using Limilabs.Client.Authentication.Google;

using Limilabs.Client.IMAP;
' VB.NET 

Imports Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2
Imports Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2.Flows
Imports Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2.Requests
Imports Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2.Responses

Imports Limilabs.Client.Authentication.Google

Imports Limilabs.Client.IMAP

Register Application

Before you can use OAuth 2.0, you must register your application using the Google Developers Console.

At least product name must be specified:

Now create credentials:

After you’ve registered, copy the “Client ID” and “Client secret” values, which you’ll need later:

Now we can define clientID, clientSecret and scope variables, as well as Google OAuth 2.0 server addresses. Scope basically specifies what services we want to have access to. In our case it is user’s email address and IMAP/SMTP access:

// c#

string clientID = "XXX.apps.googleusercontent.com";
string clientSecret = "IxBs0g5sdaSDUz4Ea7Ix-Ua";

var clientSecrets = new ClientSecrets
{
    ClientId = clientID,
    ClientSecret = clientSecret
};

var credential = new GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow(new GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow.Initializer
{
    ClientSecrets = clientSecrets,
    Scopes = new[] { GoogleScope.ImapAndSmtp.Name, GoogleScope.UserInfoEmailScope.Name}
});
' VB.NET 

Dim clientID As String = "XXX.apps.googleusercontent.com"
Dim clientSecret As String = "IxBs0g5sdaSDUz4Ea7Ix-Ua"

Dim clientSecrets = New ClientSecrets With { _
	.ClientId = clientID, _
	.ClientSecret = clientSecret _
}

Dim credential = New GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow(New GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow.Initializer With { _
	.ClientSecrets = clientSecrets, _
	.Scopes = {GoogleScope.ImapAndSmtp.Name, GoogleScope.UserInfoEmailScope.Name} _
})

Obtain an OAuth 2.0 access token

Now we’ll create authorization url:


AuthorizationCodeRequestUrl url = credential.CreateAuthorizationCodeRequest("urn:ietf:wg:oauth:2.0:oob");

Process.Start(url.Build().ToString());
' VB.NET 

Dim url As AuthorizationCodeRequestUrl = credential.CreateAuthorizationCodeRequest("urn:ietf:wg:oauth:2.0:oob")

Process.Start(url.Build().ToString())

We are using Process.Start here, but you can also embed WebBrowser control in your application.

At this point user is redirected to Google to authorize the access:

After this step user is presented a code that needs to be pasted to your application:

Please note that this code also appears in the title of the browser:

  • It is possible to monitor processes on your machine and act automatically when it is there.
  • If you use embedded WebBrowser control in your application, you can monitor the HTML document title after any redirect.

Following is a code that reads this code and contacts Google to exchange it for a refresh-token and an access-token:

string authCode = Console.ReadLine();

TokenResponse token = await credential.ExchangeCodeForTokenAsync("", authCode, "urn:ietf:wg:oauth:2.0:oob", CancellationToken.None);

string accessToken = token.AccessToken;
' VB.NET 

Dim authCode As String = Console.ReadLine()

Dim token As TokenResponse = Await credential.ExchangeCodeForTokenAsync("", authCode, "urn:ietf:wg:oauth:2.0:oob", CancellationToken.None)

Dim accessToken As String = token.AccessToken

An access token is usually valid for a maximum of one hour, and allows you to access the user’s data. You also received a refresh token. A refresh token can be used to request a new access token once the previous expired.

Access IMAP/SMTP server

Finally we’ll ask Google for user’s email and use LoginOAUTH2 method to access Gmail’s IMAP server:

// c#

GoogleApi api = new GoogleApi(accessToken);
string user = api.GetEmail();

using (Imap imap = new Imap())
{
    imap.ConnectSSL("imap.gmail.com");
    imap.LoginOAUTH2(user, accessToken);

    imap.SelectInbox();
    List<long> uids = imap.Search(Flag.Unseen);

    foreach (long uid in uids)
    {
        var eml = imap.GetMessageByUID(uid);
        IMail email = new MailBuilder().CreateFromEml(eml);
        Console.WriteLine(email.Subject);
    }
    imap.Close();
}
' VB.NET 

Dim api As New GoogleApi(accessToken)
Dim user As String = api.GetEmail()

Using imap As New Imap()
	imap.ConnectSSL("imap.gmail.com")
	imap.LoginOAUTH2(user, accessToken)

	imap.SelectInbox()
	Dim uids As List(Of Long) = imap.Search(Flag.Unseen)

	For Each uid As Long In uids
		Dim eml = imap.GetMessageByUID(uid)
		Dim email As IMail = New MailBuilder().CreateFromEml(eml)
		Console.WriteLine(email.Subject)
	Next
	imap.Close()
End Using

Refreshing access token

An access token is usually short lived and valid for a maximum of one hour. The main reason behind this is security and prevention of replay attacks. This means that for long-lived applications you need to refresh the access token.

Your refresh token will be sent only once – don’t loose it!

We recommend storing entire TokenResponse object received from GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow.ExchangeCodeForTokenAsync method call. This object contains both: refresh token and access token, along with its expiration time.

The process of refreshing access token is simple:

// c#

TokenResponse refreshed = await credential.RefreshTokenAsync("", token.RefreshToken, CancellationToken.None);

' VB.NET 

Dim refreshed As TokenResponse = Await credential.RefreshTokenAsync("", token.RefreshToken, CancellationToken.None)

OAuth 2.0 with Gmail over IMAP for web applications

Monday, March 13th, 2017

OAuth is an open protocol to allow secure API authorization in a simple and standard method from desktop and web applications.

This article describes using OAuth 2.0 to access Gmail IMAP and SMTP servers using .NET IMAP component in web application scenario (ASP.NET/ASP.NET MVC). You can also use OAuth 2.0 for installed applications.

Google.Apis

Use Nuget to download “Google.Apis.Auth” package.

Import namespaces:

// c#

using Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2;
using Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2.Flows;
using Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2.Requests;
using Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2.Responses;

using Limilabs.Client.Authentication.Google;

using Limilabs.Client.IMAP;
' VB.NET 

Imports Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2
Imports Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2.Flows
Imports Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2.Requests
Imports Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2.Responses

Imports Limilabs.Client.Authentication.Google

Imports Limilabs.Client.IMAP

Register Application

Before you can use OAuth 2.0, you must register your application using the Google Developers Console. After you’ve registered, go to the API Access tab and copy the “Client ID” and “Client secret” values and specify “Redirect URI“, which you’ll need later.

At least product name must be specified:

Now create credentials:

Specify redirect URI:

After you’ve registered, copy the “Client ID” and “Client secret” values, which you’ll need later:

Now we can define clientID, clientSecret, redirect url and scope variables, as well as Google OAuth 2.0 server addresses. Scope basically specifies what services we want to have access to. In our case it is user’s email address and IMAP/SMTP access:

// c#

string clientID = "XXX.apps.googleusercontent.com";
string clientSecret = "IxBs0g5sdaSDUz4Ea7Ix-Ua";
string redirectUri = "http://www.yourdomain.com/oauth2callback";

var clientSecrets = new ClientSecrets
{
    ClientId = clientID,
    ClientSecret = clientSecret
};

var credential = new GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow(new GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow.Initializer
{
    ClientSecrets = clientSecrets,
    Scopes = new[] { GoogleScope.ImapAndSmtp.Name, GoogleScope.UserInfoEmailScope.Name}
});
' VB.NET 

Dim clientID As String = "XXX.apps.googleusercontent.com"
Dim clientSecret As String = "IxBs0g5sdaSDUz4Ea7Ix-Ua"
Dim redirectUri As String = "http://www.yourdomain.com/oauth2callback"

Dim clientSecrets = New ClientSecrets With { _
	.ClientId = clientID, _
	.ClientSecret = clientSecret _
}

Dim credential = New GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow(New GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow.Initializer With { _
	.ClientSecrets = clientSecrets, _
	.Scopes = {GoogleScope.ImapAndSmtp.Name, GoogleScope.UserInfoEmailScope.Name} _
})

Obtain an OAuth 2.0 access token

Now we’ll create authorization url:


AuthorizationCodeRequestUrl url = credential.CreateAuthorizationCodeRequest(redirectUri);

' VB.NET 

Dim url As AuthorizationCodeRequestUrl = credential.CreateAuthorizationCodeRequest(redirectUri)

Now we need to redirect the client:

// c#

return new RedirectResult(url.Build().ToString());

' VB.NET 

Return New RedirectResult(url.Build().ToString())

At this point user is redirected to Google to authorize the access:

After this step user is redirected back to your website (http://www.yourdomain.com/oauth2callback), with code request parameter:
http://www.yourdomain.com/oauth2callback?code=4/5Y7M4cARD9hrt0nuKnQa0YgtYMasdbwprRtIIjk4Fus#

// c#

public class OAauth2CallbackController : Controller
{
    public ActionResult Index(string code)
    {
        ...
    }
}
' VB.NET 

Public Class OAauth2CallbackController
    Inherits Controller
    Public Function Index(code As String) As ActionResult
        ...
    End Function
End Class

Following is this callback code. Its purpose is to get a refresh-token and an access-token:

// c#

string authCode = code;

TokenResponse token = await credential.ExchangeCodeForTokenAsync("", authCode, redirectUri, CancellationToken.None);

string accessToken = token.AccessToken;
' VB.NET 

Dim authCode As String = code

Dim token As TokenResponse = Await credential.ExchangeCodeForTokenAsync("", authCode, redirectUri, CancellationToken.None)

Dim accessToken As String = token.AccessToken

An access token is usually valid for a maximum of one hour, and allows you to access the user’s data. You also received a refresh token. A refresh token can be used to request a new access token once the previous expired.

Access IMAP/SMTP server

Finally we’ll ask Google for user’s email and use LoginOAUTH2 method to access Gmail’s IMAP server:

// c#

GoogleApi api = new GoogleApi(accessToken);
string user = api.GetEmail();

using (Imap imap = new Imap())
{
    imap.ConnectSSL("imap.gmail.com");
    imap.LoginOAUTH2(user, accessToken);

    imap.SelectInbox();
    List<long> uids = imap.Search(Flag.Unseen);

    foreach (long uid in uids)
    {
        var eml = imap.GetMessageByUID(uid);
        IMail email = new MailBuilder().CreateFromEml(eml);
        Console.WriteLine(email.Subject);
    }
    imap.Close();
}
' VB.NET 

Dim api As New GoogleApi(accessToken)
Dim user As String = api.GetEmail()

Using imap As New Imap()
	imap.ConnectSSL("imap.gmail.com")
	imap.LoginOAUTH2(user, accessToken)

	imap.SelectInbox()
	Dim uids As List(Of Long) = imap.Search(Flag.Unseen)

	For Each uid As Long In uids
		Dim eml = imap.GetMessageByUID(uid)
		Dim email As IMail = New MailBuilder().CreateFromEml(eml)
		Console.WriteLine(email.Subject)
	Next
	imap.Close()
End Using

Refreshing access token

An access token is usually short lived and valid for a maximum of one hour. The main reason behind this is security and prevention of replay attacks. This means that for long-lived applications you need to refresh the access token.

Your refresh token will be sent only once – don’t loose it!

We recommend storing entire TokenResponse object received from GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow.ExchangeCodeForTokenAsync method call. This object contains both: refresh token and access token, along with its expiration time.

The process of refreshing access token is simple:

// c#

TokenResponse refreshed = await credential.RefreshTokenAsync("", token.RefreshToken, CancellationToken.None);

' VB.NET 

Dim refreshed As TokenResponse = Await credential.RefreshTokenAsync("", token.RefreshToken, CancellationToken.None)

OAuth 2.0 with Gmail over IMAP for installed applications (DotNetOpenAuth)

Monday, March 13th, 2017

OAuth is an open protocol to allow secure API authorization in a simple and standard method from desktop and web applications.

This article describes using OAuth 2.0 to access Gmail IMAP and SMTP servers using .NET IMAP component in installed applications scenario. You can also use OAuth 2.0 for web applications.

DotNetOpenAuth

First download the latest version of DotNetOpenAuth – it’s free, open source library that implements OAuth 2.0: http://www.dotnetopenauth.net

Register Application

Before you can use OAuth 2.0, you must register your application using the Google Developers Console.

At least product name must be specified:

Now create credentials:

After you’ve registered, copy the “Client ID” and “Client secret” values, which you’ll need later:

Now we can define clientID, clientSecret and scope variables, as well as Google OAuth 2.0 server addresses. Scope basically specifies what services we want to have access to. In our case it is user’s email address and IMAP/SMTP access:

const string clientID = "12345.apps.googleusercontent.com";
const string clientSecret = "XXXYYY111";

AuthorizationServerDescription server = new AuthorizationServerDescription
    {
        AuthorizationEndpoint = new Uri("https://accounts.google.com/o/oauth2/auth"),
        TokenEndpoint = new Uri("https://oauth2.googleapis.com/token"),
        ProtocolVersion = ProtocolVersion.V20,
    };
List<string> scope = new List<string> 
    { 
        GoogleScope.ImapAndSmtp.Name,
        GoogleScope.UserInfoEmailScope.Name 
    };

Obtain an OAuth 2.0 access token

As we are using installed applications scenario we’ll use NativeApplicationClient class.

Because of a small issue in DotNetOpenAuth we can not use UserAgentClient directly. NativeApplicationClient inherits UserAgentClient and workarounds this issue. You can find the implementation of NativeApplicationClient on the bottom of this article.

NativeApplicationClient consumer = new NativeApplicationClient(server, clientID, clientSecret);
Uri userAuthorizationUri = consumer.RequestUserAuthorization(scope);

Process.Start(userAuthorizationUri.AbsoluteUri);

We are using Process.Start here, but you can also embed WebBrowser control in your application.

At this point user is redirected to Google to authorize the access:

After this step user is presented a code that needs to be pasted to your application:

Please note that this code also appears in the title of the browser:

  • It is possible to monitor processes on your machine and act automatically when it is there.
  • If you use embedded WebBrowser control in your application, you can monitor the HTML document title after any redirect.

Following is a code that reads this code and contacts Google to exchange it for a refresh-token and an access-token:

string authCode = Console.ReadLine();

consumer.ClientCredentialApplicator = ClientCredentialApplicator.PostParameter(clientSecret);

IAuthorizationState grantedAccess = consumer.ProcessUserAuthorization(authCode);

string accessToken = grantedAccess.AccessToken;

An access token is usually valid for a maximum of one hour, and allows you to access the user’s data. You also received a refresh token. A refresh token can be used to request a new access token once the previous expired.

Access IMAP/SMTP server

Finally we’ll ask Google for user’s email and use LoginOAUTH2 method to access Gmail’s IMAP server:

GoogleApi api = new GoogleApi(accessToken);
string user = api.GetEmail();

using (Imap imap = new Imap())
{
    imap.ConnectSSL("imap.gmail.com");
    imap.LoginOAUTH2(user, accessToken);

    imap.SelectInbox();
    List<long> uids = imap.Search(Flag.Unseen);

    foreach (long uid in uids)
    {
        var eml = imap.GetMessageByUID(uid);
        IMail email = new MailBuilder().CreateFromEml(eml);
        Console.WriteLine(email.Subject);
    }
    imap.Close();
}

NativeApplicationClient class

The OAuth 2.0 client for use by native applications. It’s main purpose is to build a generic URL containing the auth code, because DotNetOpenAuth library only allows parsing an URL as a method of retrieving the AuthorizationState.

/// <summary>
/// The OAuth2 client for use by native applications. 
/// This is a partial implementation which  should be used until 
/// the feature has been fully implemented in DotNetOpenAuth.
/// </summary>
public class NativeApplicationClient : UserAgentClient
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Represents a callback URL which points to a special out of band page 
    /// used for native OAuth2 authorization. This URL will cause the authorization 
    /// code to appear in the title of the window.
    /// </summary>
    /// <remarks>
    /// See http://code.google.com/apis/accounts/docs/OAuth2.html
    /// </remarks>
    public const string OutOfBandCallbackUrl = "urn:ietf:wg:oauth:2.0:oob";

    /// <summary>
    /// Initializes a new instance of the <see cref="UserAgentClient"/> class.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="authorizationServer">The token issuer.</param>
    /// <param name="clientIdentifier">The client identifier.</param>
    /// <param name="clientSecret">The client secret.</param>
    public NativeApplicationClient(
        AuthorizationServerDescription authorizationServer,
        string clientIdentifier,
        string clientSecret)
        : base(authorizationServer, clientIdentifier, clientSecret)
    {
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Initializes a new instance of the <see cref="UserAgentClient"/> class.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="authorizationServer">The token issuer.</param>
    public NativeApplicationClient(
        AuthorizationServerDescription authorizationServer)
        : this(authorizationServer, null, null)
    {
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Creates the URL which should be used by the user to request the initial 
    /// authorization. Uses the default Out-of-band-URI as a callback.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="scope">Set of requested scopes</param>
    /// <returns>URI pointing to the authorization server</returns>
    public Uri RequestUserAuthorization(IEnumerable<string> scope)
    {
        var state = new AuthorizationState(scope);
        state.Callback = new Uri(OutOfBandCallbackUrl);
        return RequestUserAuthorization(state, false, null);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Uses the provided authorization code to create an authorization state.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="authCode">The authorization code for getting an access token.</param>
    /// <param name="authorizationState">The authorization.  Optional.</param>
    /// <returns>The granted authorization, or <c>null</c> if the authorization was null or rejected.</returns>
    public IAuthorizationState ProcessUserAuthorization(
        string authCode, 
        IAuthorizationState authorizationState)
    {
        if (authorizationState == null)
        {
            authorizationState = new AuthorizationState(null);
            authorizationState.Callback = new Uri(OutOfBandCallbackUrl);
        }

        // Build a generic URL containing the auth code.
        // This is done here as we cannot modify the DotNetOpenAuth library 
        // and the underlying method only allows parsing an URL as a method 
        // of retrieving the AuthorizationState.
        string url = "http://example.com/?code=" + authCode;
        return ProcessUserAuthorization(new Uri(url), authorizationState);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Uses the provided authorization code to create an authorization state.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="authCode">The authorization code for getting an access token.</param>
    /// <returns>The granted authorization, or <c>null</c> if the authorization was null or rejected.</returns>
    public IAuthorizationState ProcessUserAuthorization(string authCode)
    {
        return ProcessUserAuthorization(authCode, null);
    }
};

Refreshing access token

An access token is usually short lived and valid for a maximum of one hour. The main reason behind this is security and prevention of replay attacks. This means that for long-lived applications you need to refresh the access token.

Your refresh token will be sent only once – don’t loose it!

We recommend storing entire IAuthorizationState object received from NativeApplicationClient.ProcessUserAuthorization method call. This object contains both: refresh token and access token, along with its expiration time.

The process of refreshing access token is simple:

IAuthorizationState grantedAccess = ...
consumer.RefreshAuthorization(grantedAccess, TimeSpan.FromMinutes(20));

In the example above the access token will not be refreshed if its remaining lifetime exceeds 20 minutes.

Retrieving lost refresh token

When your application receives a refresh token, it is important to store that refresh token for future use. If your application loses the refresh token, it will have to re-prompt the user for consent before obtaining another refresh token.

You’ll need to add approval_prompt=force to your parameters:

 AuthorizationServerDescription authServer = new AuthorizationServerDescription
 {
     AuthorizationEndpoint = 
          new Uri("https://accounts.google.com/o/oauth2/auth?access_type=offline&approval_prompt=force"),
     ...
 };

OAuth 2.0 with Gmail over IMAP for service account (DotNetOpenAuth)

Sunday, March 13th, 2016
Consider using Google.Apis version for service account Gmail access instead of DotNetOpenAuth version.

In this article I’ll show how to access Gmail account of any domain user, using OAuth 2.0, .NET IMAP component and service accounts. The basic idea is that domain administrator can use this method to access user email without knowing user’s password.

This scenario is very similar to 2-legged OAuth, which uses OAuth 1.0a. Although it still works, it has been deprecated by Google and OAuth 2.0 service accounts were introduced.

The following describes how to use XOAUTH2 and OAuth 2.0 to achieve the equivalent of 2-legged OAuth.

Google APIs console

First you need to visit the Google Developers Console and create a service account:

console_0

console_1

console_2

Download and save this private key, you’ll need that later:

console_3

Go to “Service accounts” and click “View Client ID”:

console_4

Make a note of the Client ID and Email address (Service account).

Google Apps Dashboard

Next step is to authorize access for newly created service account.

Visit your domain administration panel:
https://www.google.com/a/cpanel/yourdomain.com/ManageOauthClients

Then click “Advanced tools”, “Authentication” and “Manage third party OAuth Client access”.

On this screen you can authorize service account to access email scope:

cpanel_1

Use previously remembered Client ID and “https://mail.google.com/”, which is IMAP/SMTP API scope:

Client Name: 1234567890
One or More API Scopes: https://mail.google.com/

DotNetOpenAuth

DotNetOpenAuth is free, open source library that implements OAuth 2.0.

However you can not use the latest version. This is because Google has not updated their code to work with the most recent release. You’ll need to use 4.0 version.

Newtonsoft.Json

The other library you’ll need is Newtonsoft.Json JSON library. You can download it here: https://github.com/JamesNK/Newtonsoft.Json/releases or use nuget.

Access IMAP/SMTP server

using System;
using System.Text;
using System.Security.Cryptography;
using System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates;
using Newtonsoft.Json;
using DotNetOpenAuth.Messaging;
using DotNetOpenAuth.OAuth2;
using DotNetOpenAuth.OAuth2.Messages;
using Limilabs.Client.Authentication.Google;
using Limilabs.Client.IMAP;
using Limilabs.Mail;


const string serviceAccountEmail = "name@xxxxxxxxxx.gserviceaccount.com";
const string serviceAccountCertPath = @"c:\XYZ.p12";
const string serviceAccountCertPassword = "notasecret";
const string userEmail = "user@your-domain.com";

X509Certificate2 certificate =  new X509Certificate2(
    serviceAccountCertPath, 
    serviceAccountCertPassword,
    X509KeyStorageFlags.Exportable);

AuthorizationServerDescription server = new AuthorizationServerDescription
    {
        AuthorizationEndpoint = new Uri("https://accounts.google.com/o/oauth2/auth"),
        TokenEndpoint = new Uri("https://oauth2.googleapis.com/token"),
        ProtocolVersion = ProtocolVersion.V20,
    };

AssertionFlowClient provider = new AssertionFlowClient(server, certificate)
{
    ServiceAccountId = serviceAccountEmail,
    Scope = Limilabs.Client.Authentication.Google.GoogleScope.ImapAndSmtp.Name,
    ServiceAccountUser = userEmail,
};

IAuthorizationState grantedAccess = AssertionFlowClient.GetState(provider);
string accessToken = grantedAccess.AccessToken;

using (Imap client = new Imap())
{
    client.ConnectSSL("imap.gmail.com");
    client.LoginOAUTH2(userEmail, accessToken);

    client.SelectInbox();
    List<long> uids = client.Search(Flag.Unseen);

    foreach (long uid in uids)
    {
        var eml = client.GetMessageByUID(uid);
        IMail email = new MailBuilder().CreateFromEml(eml);
        Console.WriteLine(email.Subject);
    }
    client.Close();
}

AssertionFlowClient

I’ll need to add several classes defined below. You can also browse Google APIs Client Library for .NET.

/// <summary>
/// Assertion flow header used to generate the assertion flow message header.
/// </summary>
public class AssertionFlowHeader
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the encryption algorithm used by the assertion flow message.
    /// </summary>
    [Newtonsoft.Json.JsonPropertyAttribute("alg")]
    public String Algorithm { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the type of the claim.
    /// </summary>
    [Newtonsoft.Json.JsonPropertyAttribute("typ")]
    public String Type { get; set; }
};

/// <summary>
/// Google assertion flow header holding Google supported values.
/// </summary>
public class GoogleAssertionFlowHeader : AssertionFlowHeader
{

    /// <summary>
    /// The google signing algorithm, currently RSA-SHA256
    /// </summary>
    public const string GoogleSigningAlgorithm = "RS256";

    /// <summary>
    /// The type of the google assertion, currently JSON Web Token
    /// </summary>
    public const string GoogleAssertionType = "JWT";

    public GoogleAssertionFlowHeader()
    {
        Algorithm = GoogleSigningAlgorithm;
        Type = GoogleAssertionType;
    }
};

/// <summary>
/// Assertion flow claim used to generate the assertion flow message claim.
/// </summary>
public class AssertionFlowClaim
{
    public AssertionFlowClaim()
    {
        DateTime begin = new DateTime(1970, 01, 01, 0, 0, 0, DateTimeKind.Utc);
        IssuedAt = (long) (DateTime.UtcNow - begin).TotalSeconds;
        ExpiresAt = IssuedAt + 3600;
    }

    public AssertionFlowClaim(AuthorizationServerDescription authorizationServer)
        : this()
    {
        Audience = authorizationServer.TokenEndpoint.ToString();
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the assertion flow issuer (e.g client ID).
    /// </summary>
    [Newtonsoft.Json.JsonPropertyAttribute("iss")]
    public String Issuer { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the service account user (for domain-wide delegation).
    /// </summary>
    [Newtonsoft.Json.JsonPropertyAttribute("prn")]
    public String Principal { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the scope.
    /// </summary>
    [Newtonsoft.Json.JsonPropertyAttribute("scope")]
    public String Scope { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the token endpoint.
    /// </summary>
    [Newtonsoft.Json.JsonPropertyAttribute("aud")]
    public String Audience { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the expected expiration of the token to retrieve.
    /// </summary>
    [Newtonsoft.Json.JsonPropertyAttribute("exp")]
    public long ExpiresAt { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the UTC timestamp at which this claim has been built.
    /// </summary>
    [Newtonsoft.Json.JsonPropertyAttribute("iat")]
    public long IssuedAt { get; set; }
};

/// <summary>
/// Assertion flow message to be sent to the token endpoint.
/// </summary>
public class AssertionFlowMessage : MessageBase
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Google supported assertion type 
    /// </summary>
    public const string GoogleAssertionType = "http://oauth.net/grant_type/jwt/1.0/bearer";

    /// <summary>
    /// Initializes a new instance of the <see cref="AssertionFlowMessage"/> class.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name='authorizationServer'> Authorization server description. </param>
    public AssertionFlowMessage(AuthorizationServerDescription authorizationServer) :
        base(new Version(2, 0), MessageTransport.Direct, authorizationServer.TokenEndpoint)
    {
        GrantType = "assertion";
        AssertionType = GoogleAssertionType;
        this.HttpMethods = HttpDeliveryMethods.PostRequest;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the type of the grant (defaults to "assertion").
    /// </summary>
    [MessagePart("grant_type", IsRequired = true)]
    public String GrantType { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the type of the assertion 
    /// (defaults to "http://oauth.net/grant_type/jwt/1.0/bearer").
    /// </summary>
    [MessagePart("assertion_type", IsRequired = true)]
    public String AssertionType { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the assertion message.
    /// </summary>
    [MessagePart("assertion", IsRequired = true)]
    public String Assertion { get; set; }
};

public class AssertionFlowClient : ClientBase
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the service account identifier.
    /// </summary>
    /// <value>
    /// The service account identifier.
    /// </value>
    public String ServiceAccountId { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the service account user (used for domain-wide delegation).
    /// </summary>
    public String ServiceAccountUser { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the scope to get access for.
    /// </summary>
    public String Scope { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets the certificate used to sign the assertion.
    /// </summary>
    public X509Certificate2 Certificate { get; private set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the JWT claim's header (defaults to Google's supported values).
    /// </summary>
    public AssertionFlowHeader Header { get; set; }

    public RSACryptoServiceProvider Key { get; private set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Initializes a new instance of the
    /// <see cref="AssertionFlowClient"/> class.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name='authorizationServer'>
    /// Authorization server description.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name='certificate'>
    /// Certificate to use to sign the assertion flow messages.
    /// </param>
    public AssertionFlowClient(
        AuthorizationServerDescription authorizationServer,
        X509Certificate2 certificate)
        : base(authorizationServer, null, null)
    {
        if (certificate == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("certificate");
        if (certificate.PrivateKey == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("certificate.PrivateKey");

        Header = new GoogleAssertionFlowHeader();
        Certificate = certificate;

        // Workaround to correctly cast the private key as a RSACryptoServiceProvider type 24
        RSACryptoServiceProvider rsa = (RSACryptoServiceProvider) certificate.PrivateKey;
        byte[] privateKeyBlob = rsa.ExportCspBlob(true);

        Key = new RSACryptoServiceProvider();
        Key.ImportCspBlob(privateKeyBlob);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Helper method to retrieve the Authorization State.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>
    /// The authorization state.
    /// </returns>
    /// <param name='provider'>
    /// The provider to use to retrieve the authorization state.
    /// </param>
    public static IAuthorizationState GetState(AssertionFlowClient provider)
    {
        if (provider.Scope == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("Scope");
        IAuthorizationState state = new AuthorizationState(provider.Scope.Split(' '));

        if (provider.RefreshToken(state, null))
        {
            return state;
        }
        return null;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Request a new access token using the OAuth 2.0 assertion flow.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>
    /// Whether or not a new access token has been successfully retrieved.
    /// </returns>
    /// <param name='authorization'>
    /// Object containing the current authorization state.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name='skipIfUsefulLifeExceeds'>
    /// If set to <c>true</c> skip if useful life exceeds.
    /// </param>
    public new bool RefreshToken(
        IAuthorizationState authorization, 
        TimeSpan? skipIfUsefulLifeExceeds)
    {
        return RefreshToken(authorization, skipIfUsefulLifeExceeds, this.Channel.Request);
    }

    public bool RefreshToken(
        IAuthorizationState authorization,
        TimeSpan? skipIfUsefulLifeExceeds,
        Func<IDirectedProtocolMessage, IProtocolMessage> requestProvider)
    {
        if (authorization == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("authorization");
        if (this.Certificate == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("Certificate");

        // Check if the token is still valid.
        if (skipIfUsefulLifeExceeds.HasValue && authorization.AccessTokenExpirationUtc.HasValue)
        {
            TimeSpan timeSpan = authorization.AccessTokenExpirationUtc.Value - DateTime.UtcNow;
            if (timeSpan > skipIfUsefulLifeExceeds.Value)
            {
                return false;
            }
        }

        AssertionFlowMessage requestMessage = GenerateMessage();

        var response = requestProvider(requestMessage);

        // Response is not strongly-typed to an AccessTokenSuccessResponse because DotNetOpenAuth can't infer the
        // type from the request message type. The only way to get access to the result data is through the
        // resulting Dictionary.
        if (response.ExtraData.ContainsKey("access_token") && response.ExtraData.ContainsKey("expires_in"))
        {
            authorization.AccessToken = response.ExtraData["access_token"];
            long expiresIn = long.Parse(response.ExtraData["expires_in"]);
            DateTime utcNow = DateTime.UtcNow;
            authorization.AccessTokenExpirationUtc = utcNow.AddSeconds(expiresIn);
            authorization.AccessTokenIssueDateUtc = utcNow;
            authorization.SaveChanges();
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Generates the assertion flow message to be sent to the token endpoint.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>
    /// The assertion flow message.
    /// </returns>
    private AssertionFlowMessage GenerateMessage()
    {
        string header = JsonConvert.SerializeObject(Header);
        string claim = JsonConvert.SerializeObject(
            new AssertionFlowClaim(AuthorizationServer)
                       {
                           Issuer = this.ServiceAccountId,
                           Principal = this.ServiceAccountUser,
                           Scope = this.Scope
                       });

        StringBuilder assertion = new StringBuilder();
        assertion.Append(UnpaddedUrlSafeBase64Encode(header));
        assertion.Append(".");
        assertion.Append(UnpaddedUrlSafeBase64Encode(claim));

        // TODO: Check if this is working on FIPS enabled systems.
        byte[] data = Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(assertion.ToString());
        String signature = UnpaddedUrlSafeBase64Encode(Key.SignData(data, "SHA256"));
        assertion.Append(".");
        assertion.Append(signature);

        return new AssertionFlowMessage(this.AuthorizationServer)
                   {
                       Assertion = assertion.ToString()
                   };
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Encode the provided UTF8 string into an URL safe base64 string.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>
    /// The URL safe base64 string.
    /// </returns>
    /// <param name='value'>
    /// String to encode.
    /// </param>
    private String UnpaddedUrlSafeBase64Encode(String value)
    {
        return UnpaddedUrlSafeBase64Encode(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(value));
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Encode the byte array into an URL safe base64 string.
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns>
    /// The URL safe base64 string.
    /// </returns>
    /// <param name='bytes'>
    /// Bytes to encode.
    /// </param>
    private String UnpaddedUrlSafeBase64Encode(Byte[] bytes)
    {
        return Convert.ToBase64String(bytes)
            .Replace("=", String.Empty)
            .Replace('+', '-')
            .Replace('/', '_');
    }
};

OAuth 2.0 with Gmail over IMAP for service account

Thursday, September 11th, 2014

In this article I’ll show how to access Gmail account of any domain user, using OAuth 2.0, .NET IMAP component and service accounts. The basic idea is that domain administrator can use this method to access user email without knowing user’s password.

This scenario is very similar to 2-legged OAuth, which uses OAuth 1.0a. Although it still works, it has been deprecated by Google and OAuth 2.0 service accounts were introduced.

The following describes how to use XOAUTH2 and OAuth 2.0 to achieve the equivalent of 2-legged OAuth.

Google.Apis

Use Nuget to download “Google.Apis.Auth” package.

Import namespaces:

// c#

using Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2;
using Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2.Flows;
using Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2.Requests;
using Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2.Responses;

using System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates;

using Limilabs.Client.Authentication.Google;

using Limilabs.Client.IMAP;
' VB.NET 

Imports Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2
Imports Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2.Flows
Imports Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2.Requests
Imports Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2.Responses

Imports System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates

Imports Limilabs.Client.Authentication.Google

Imports Limilabs.Client.IMAP

Google APIs console

First you need to visit the Google Developers Console and create a service account:

console_0

console_1

console_2

Download and save this private key (XYZ.p12), you’ll need that later:

console_3

Go to “Service accounts” and click “View Client ID”:

console_4

Make a note of the Client ID and Email address (Service account).

Google Apps Dashboard

Next step is to authorize access for newly created service account.

Visit your domain administration panel:
https://www.google.com/a/cpanel/yourdomain.com/ManageOauthClients

Then click “Advanced tools”, “Authentication” and “Manage third party OAuth Client access”.

On this screen you can authorize service account to access email scope:

cpanel_1

Use previously remembered Client ID and “https://mail.google.com/”, which is IMAP/SMTP API scope:

Client Name: 1234567890
One or More API Scopes: https://mail.google.com/

Access IMAP/SMTP server

// C#

const string serviceAccountEmail = "name@xxxxxxxxxx.gserviceaccount.com";
const string serviceAccountCertPath = @"c:\XYZ.p12";
const string serviceAccountCertPassword = "notasecret";
const string userEmail = "user@your-domain.com";

X509Certificate2 certificate = new X509Certificate2(
    serviceAccountCertPath, 
    serviceAccountCertPassword, 
    X509KeyStorageFlags.Exportable);

ServiceAccountCredential credential = new ServiceAccountCredential(
    new ServiceAccountCredential.Initializer(serviceAccountEmail)
    {
        Scopes = new[] { GoogleScope.ImapAndSmtp.Name },
        User = userEmail
    }.FromCertificate(certificate));


bool success = await credential.RequestAccessTokenAsync(CancellationToken.None);

using (Imap imap = new Imap())
{
    imap.ConnectSSL("imap.gmail.com");
    imap.LoginOAUTH2(userEmail, credential.Token.AccessToken);

    imap.SelectInbox();

    foreach (long uid in uids)
    {
        var eml = client.GetMessageByUID(uid);
        IMail email = new MailBuilder().CreateFromEml(eml);
        Console.WriteLine(email.Subject);
    }

    imap.Close();
}
' VB.NET

Const serviceAccountEmail As String = "name@xxxxxxxxxx.gserviceaccount.com"
Const serviceAccountCertPath As String = "c:\XYZ.p12"
Const serviceAccountCertPassword As String = "notasecret"
Const userEmail As String = "user@your-domain.com"

Dim certificate As New X509Certificate2(serviceAccountCertPath, serviceAccountCertPassword, X509KeyStorageFlags.Exportable)

Dim credential As New ServiceAccountCredential(New ServiceAccountCredential.Initializer(serviceAccountEmail) With { _
	.Scopes = {GoogleScope.ImapAndSmtp.Name}, _
	.User = userEmail _
}.FromCertificate(certificate))

Dim success As Boolean = credential.RequestAccessTokenAsync(CancellationToken.None).Result

Using imap As New Imap()
	imap.ConnectSSL("imap.gmail.com")
	imap.LoginOAUTH2(userEmail, credential.Token.AccessToken)

	imap.SelectInbox()

	For Each uid As Long In uids
		Dim eml = client.GetMessageByUID(uid)
		Dim email As IMail = New MailBuilder().CreateFromEml(eml)
		Console.WriteLine(email.Subject)
	Next

	imap.Close()
End Using